Exotic spices from Asia such as turmeric and fruits such as bananas reached the Mediterranean more than 3,000 years ago, much earlier than previously thought. Based on the study of ancient proteins preserved in the tartar of deceased humans, researchers led by the LMU archaeologist Philipp Stockhammer show that even in the Bronze Age long-distance trade in food-connected societies living far away.

A market in the Levant in the city of Megiddo 3,700 years ago: the merchants offer their stalls not only wheat, millet, or dates, which grow everywhere in the Region. In addition to carafes with sesame oil, there have recently also been bowls with a bright yellow spice between their wares. Philipp Stockhammer imagines the market activity in the Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean in a similar way. Together with an international team, the LMU archaeologist was able to prove with the analysis of food residues in human tartar that humans in the late Bronze and early Iron Age in the Levant were already eating turmeric, bananas, or soy. “Exotic spices, fruits, and oils from Asia reached the Mediterranean a few centuries, sometimes even thousands of years earlier than thought,” says Stockhammer. “It is the earliest direct detection of turmeric, banana, and soy outside South and East Asia.«

The first steps of globalization: long-distance trade flourished

The presence of certain food remains in the tartar of the deceased also means that already in the second millennium BC there was a lively long-distance trade in exotic fruits, spices, and oils. This probably passed through South Asia and Mesopotamia or Egypt– the first traces of globalization.
For their analyses, the international team around Stockhammer examined 16 individuals from the sites Megiddo and Tel Erani, which are located in today’s Israel. The region in the southern Levant had an important bridging function between the Mediterranean, Asia, and Egypt in the second millennium.

For their analysis, the researchers took samples from the teeth of individual individuals and analyzed which proteins and plant remains of the diet have been preserved in the tartar. “If you don’t do dental hygiene, archaeologists will tell us what you have been feeding on for thousands of years,” says Stockhammer.

Palaeoproteinanalysen the researchers call this new and promising scientific approach. “Our research shows the great potential of these methods to identify evidence of foods that otherwise leave few archaeological traces,” explains Christina Warinner, a bioarchaeologist at Harvard University and the Max Planck Institute for human history. “Our approach marks new scientific ground,” emphasizes LMU bioarchaeologist, Ashley Scott. Because it is not easy to assign individual protein sections to food. Once a Protein has survived for thousands of years, its identification is a major challenge. “Interestingly, allergy-causing proteins appear to be most stable in tartar,” says Scott.

The results of the study are published in the journal PNAS. It was created as part of Stockhammer’s project “FoodTransforms – Transformations of Food in the Eastern Mediterranean Late Bronze Age”, which is funded by the European Research Council ERC. The international study Team includes scientists from LMU Munich, Harvard University, and the Max Planck Institute for human history in Jena.


Relations with the Philippines
Compared to the first settlement in Polynesia, the settlement of the Marianas in the western Pacific about 3,500 years ago has so far received little attention. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, the Australian National University and the University of Guam have now investigated the origins of the first settlers of the Mariana Islands and their relationship to the first settlers of Polynesia.

To reach the Mariana Islands in the western Pacific, people crossed more than 2,000 kilometers of open ocean, some 2,000 years earlier than other sea voyages over similarly long distances. The settlement of the Mariana Islands about 3,500 years ago took place somewhat earlier than the first settlement of Polynesia, according to the study recently published in the journal PNAS.

“We know more about the settlement of Polynesia than about the settlement of the Mariana Islands,” says first author Irina Pugach, researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig. The researchers wanted to find out where the people who reached the Mariana Islands came from, and to what extent the ancestors of the Chamorro – today’s inhabitants of the Mariana Islands – might be related to Polynesians.

To find answers to these questions, the scientists examined the genetic material of two human skeletons from the Ritidian Beach cave in northern Guam. The two skeletons were dated to an age of about 2,200 years. “The DNA of these two ancient skeletons shows kinship with the Philippines,” says Pugach. “Our results confirm what linguistic and archaeological studies have shown: they point to an insular South-East Asian origin of the first settlers of the Mariana Islands,” says co-author Mike T. Carson, archaeologist at the Micronesian area Research Center at the University of Guam.

“We also find a close connection between the old Guam-skeletons and early Lapita individuals from Vanuatu and Tonga in the Western Pacific,” adds Pugach. “The Mariana Islands and Polynesia may have been colonized by the same original population. In addition, the Marianas may have played a role in the later settlement of Polynesia.«

The researchers point out that although their investigations provide interesting new findings, they are based only on the analysis of the genetic material of two skeletons, which date from around 1,400 years after the first settlement of Guam. “The settlement history of Guam and the remote island groups in Oceania should be investigated even more intensively.”says senior author Mark Stoneking from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Delicious taste! There is no other way to describe these pancakes, because no one would ever come up with the idea that this golden-brown baked, wafer-thin delicacy is completely without flour…with a sensational 0.9 grams of KH per piece! ?


The really great thing about this recipe is that these pancakes aka pancakes actually taste 1:1 like the original with flour. And therefore with a hit-suspiciously low KH content of not even 1 gram per piece are hundreds of percent ketogenic.

Pancakes are egg dishes made from egg, milk and flour, which are baked in a pan. The only – but essential-difference to the classic omelet is the fact that the mass is bound with flour (or in our Keto Version with protein powder).

Now, the thickness of the pancakes could not be more different to the omelet. Because it will be really good pancakes if the Flades succeed as thin as possible! Wafer-thin “Palas”, in France also called crepes, are really a delight!?

I love these pancakes in all variations, because they are absolutely versatile for dishes. Filled with Ketoaceous jam, rolled in and slightly refined with powdered sweetness, they are a great (and quick) Dessert. The variant as ice cream pancake-the warm pancake filled with ice cream-is my All-time Favourite dessert, of which I definitely can not get enough…

Also with spicy filling – for example, coated with cream cheese or filled with ham and/or cheese and then rolled, they are a truly delicious Snack.

Imperial-delicious curd Palatschinken are anyway the culinary blast-the recipe you will find soon on my Blog.

And the pancakes are also excellent as a soup insert. We Ketarier have to – much to my Regret – to the delicious Soup garnishes such as semolina dumplings, liver dumplings, and the like without. All the more great is this Alternative: frying!

To do this, simply roll in a pancake, and cut finely with a knife. Ready is the perfect inlay for your soup! A special Highlight are the fritters in my world’s best chicken soup ?…

As you can see from my list of uses in sweet as well as spicy terms, the Palatschinken recipe is NEUTRAL. The dough is never sweetened (even if you use the pancakes for a sweet dish!)- because then he would not taste so delicious beweitem!

Only a tiny pinch of salt is added as a seasoning – you should not do without this. Believe me, it makes the icing on the cake. But really just a little pinch of salt, please…

Preparation time10minutes

The perfect pancake recipe for Crepes, stuffed pancakes, fritters and, and, and….
Ketogen, flour-free and sugar-free.
Recipe yields 10 pieces of 0.9 grams KH each.

4 Eggs (Size L)

60ml whipped cream

80g protein powder-neutral (I use sportness of DM)

200 to 250ml water

Pinch Of Salt

approx. 30g butter lard for baking the pancakes

Whisk, if necessary, hand blender, nonstick pan, spatula, baking brush with plastic bristles


Mix the eggs well with the whipped cream with a whisk.
Add protein powder, pinch of salt and water (start with 200ml and increase if necessary) and mix well.
When small clumps have formed, it is best to put a hand blender on these annoying things and mix the whole thing with full throttle a few times ;-).
Now a homogeneous, slightly viscous dough should have been created. If it is too viscous, add some more water.
Let the pancake batter rest for about 10 minutes.
Let a coated pan get very hot.
As soon as the pan is very hot, add a small amount of butter lard (about hazelnut size) and spread with the baking brush in the pan.
Now lift the pan, empty some dough in the middle of the pan with the other Hand and turn the pan quickly so that the dough in the pan spreads as evenly as possible. If necessary, add some more dough and continue to turn until the entire bottom of the pan is thinly covered with dough.
Put the pan back on the stove, reduce the heat a little bit (for me this is Level 8 of 9).
Now the dough becomes increasingly lighter as the underside bakes. But wait at least 1 to 1 1/2 minutes before carefully trying to guide the spatula under the pancake. If the pancake is not yet sufficiently baked, it will tear apart (if you prepare fritters from it, however, it does not matter ; -)).
The perfect time is everything here. I always do it this way: when I think, but now it is high time to turn, I still wait 10 seconds and then the Timing for turning is perfect.
Turn the pancake over quickly with the pan Turner and bake for about 1 Minute.
Do the same with the remaining dough.
Let the finished pancakes cool on a plate.